Revista de genética e investigación del ADN.

DNA Repair: The Intricate Molecular Dance Safeguarding our Genetic Blueprint


Valentina Tozzini*

DNA repair mechanisms play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of our genetic blueprint, protecting it from various forms of damage. This intricate molecular dance involves a network of intricate pathways and processes that work together to identify and rectify DNA lesions, ensuring faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. Understanding the intricacies of DNA repair is essential for comprehending the etiology of numerous genetic disorders, as well as the development of effective therapeutic strategies for diseases linked to defective repair systems. This review explores the multifaceted nature of DNA repair, highlighting the key players and mechanisms involved in the detection and repair of various DNA lesions, including base modifications, strand breaks, and cross-links. The interplay between different repair pathways, such as nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination, is discussed in detail, emphasizing their coordinated efforts to preserve genome stability. Furthermore, the impact of DNA repair deficiencies on human health is examined, with a focus on the association between impaired repair systems and cancer susceptibility. The emerging field of synthetic lethality, which exploits the vulnerabilities of cancer cells with defective repair pathways, is also explored as a promising avenue for targeted cancer therapies.

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