Artículo de investigación

Zhi Gang Sha and Rulin Xiu

Inflation is the most commonly accepted theory in cosmology to explain why the universe appears flat, homogeneous, and isotropic, as well as the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos and why no magnetic monopoles have been detected. However, so far, the origin of the inflation epoch and what is the hypothetical field, the inflaton, giving rise to inflation, remains unknown. String theory is one of the promising candidates for the grand unification theory. Grand unification theory is to use one mathematic formula to describe everything. In this work, we study the inflation scheme in a new development in string theory, universal function interpretation of string theory (UWFIST). We show that from UWFIST we can derive from the fundamental theory that the long-range vibration is the possible candidate of inflaton. We estimate the vacuum energy created by the long-range vibration and show that it can indeed drives the inflation.

Actas de la conferencia

Dipak Kumar Sisodiya

Ground effect is the increased lift (force) and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircraft's/formula car’s wings generates when they are close to a fixed surface. When landing, ground effect can give the pilot the feeling that the aircraft is "floating". In cars, Ground effect is a term applied to a series of aerodynamic effects used in car design, which has been exploited to create downforce, particularly in racing cars.

In this project, we look into what changes do ground effect have in creating the required downforce for the formula car.

Artículo de investigación

Kryukov N and Oks E

Previously it was shown analytically that it is possible for a planet around a binary star to have stable or metastable conic-helical orbits, whose axis of symmetry coincides with the interstellar axis. That study was performed in frames of the nonrelativistic classical mechanics. In the present paper, first, we extend that study to star-planet-moon systemsalso in frames of the nonrelativistic classical mechanics. We complement analytical results by simulations showing that the moon can have practically stable conic-helical orbits around the planet, the average plane of the orbits being perpendicular to the axis connecting the planet and the star. Second, we extend that study to the relativistic classical mechanics. We show that relativistic effects can become significant in conic-helical orbits of a planet around a binary star for the situations where the mass of the planet is relatively small (such planets are so-called planetoids). Again, we complement analytical results by simulations showing that the planet can have relatively stable conic-helical orbits around the lighter star, the average plane of the orbits being perpendicular to the interstellar axis.

Opinión

Norbert David Franxman

How Stars are formed? At the center of the galaxy we have what is referred to as a black hole. I would describe it as a proton star with similarity to how a stars mechanics work only in the opposite way. Because of the negative polarity protons flow in and are converted to electron. Since cold flow with proton a black hole is super cold and unlike stars there are no gases flowing from planets to burn on the surface so no photons leaving to make it shine.

Opinión

Oks E

High-n hydrogen spectral lines (SL), n=13–17, studied in astrophysical and laboratory observations at the electron density Ne ~ 1013 cm-3 by Bengtson and Chester exhibited red shifts by orders of magnitude greater than the theoretical shifts known up to now. Specifically, BC presented the shifts of these SL observed in the spectra from Sirius and in the spectra from a radiofrequency discharge plasma in the laboratory: both types of the observations yielded red shifts that exceeded the corresponding theoretical shifts by orders of magnitude. In the present paper we introduce an additional source of the shift of high-n hydrogenic SL. We show that for high-n hydrogen SL it makes the primary contribution to the total red shift. We demonstrate that for the conditions of the astrophysical and laboratory observations from paper by Bengtson and Chester, this additional red shift is by orders of magnitude greater than the theoretical shifts known up to now. Finally we show that the allowance for this additional red shift removes the existed huge discrepancy between the observed and theoretical shifts of those that of high-n hydrogen SL.

Teoría

Fulton Johns T

“There is always more than meets the eye in a fractal frame of reference”. Almost three quarters of our globe is home to another world we are only beginning to understand. Yet, what has been very obvious from our earliest investigation of the sea is that it reveals a complex reality alien to us, the sea is a world in and of itself. Though it provides the very fabric of existence of the life it sustains, the combined network of oceans that blankets our planet go unnoticed by its inhabitants due to its scale and the fact that these waters are the very space (i.e. fluid) these life forms live in and navigate through moment by moment. As it is with the sea life, so it is in our world; we like our marine counterparts fail to notice the sea of our own reality. The space we occupy and live in is empty, to our everyday sensory perceptions, until of course we feel the wind on our face. Only then do we become aware that something unseen actually exists. The five senses we possess are incapable of detecting the extremes of both microscopic and cosmic scales, yet they do exist. This is the fundamental point I want you to remember as you read my theory.

Teoría

Rulin Xiu

The observation that expansion of our universe is accelerating suggests the existence of an unknown energy source, dark energy. The observed large-scale structure of our universe indicates the existence of an unknown matter source, dark matter. Cosmological constant, a constant term related to the vacuum energy appearing in the equation of gravitational field, is the simplest possible form of dark energy. String theory is one of the few mathematically consistent theories that can unify quantum physics and general relativity. In this work, we present a new way to derive and interpret string theory. We show that this new interpretation of string theory can explain the source of dark energy and dark matter. It may provide a way to calculate cosmological constant consistent with the current data.

Artículo de investigación

Sharda Pandey and Satendra K Chauhan

The cosmic ray spectrum exhibits two transition regions. The steepening of the spectrum occurs around 106 GeV known as knee region and the flattening of the spectrum occurs around 109 GeV known as ankle region. The reason of this transition in cosmic ray spectrum is not known. When the cosmic rays interact with the atmospheric nuclei they produce muons. The decay of long live d mesons at GeV energies contributes to the conventional muon fluxes. At higher energies, some contribution to the fluxes of muons will come from the interactions of short lived particles with the atmospheric nuclei. This contribution will give rise to prompt muon fluxes. In order to understand the prompt contribution to the neutrino and muon fluxes, we have selected high energy (TeV) muons for our studies. The dominant processes for this energy range are pair production and bremsstrahlung. For this energy region, we are using pair-meter technique to achieve a reliable reconstruction of the muon energies. Here we are taking a detector with dimensions 15.6 m × 15.6 m × 78 m and which is placed 705 m underground from the surface of the earth. This study will help us to understand the contribution of prompt muon fluxes in higher energy region. It will also help us in understanding the possible compositional changes in the cosmic ray spectrum.

Artículo de investigación

Singh J and Vincent AE

We study numerically the perturbed problem of four bodies, where an infinitesimal body is moving under the Newtonian gravitational attraction of three much bigger bodies (called the primaries). The three bodies are moving in circles around their centre of mass fixed at the origin of the coordinate system, according to the solution of Lagrange where they are always at the apices of an equilateral triangle. The fourth body does not affect the motion of the primaries. The problem is perturbed in the sense that the dominant primary body m1 is a radiation source while the second smaller primary m2 is an oblate spheroid, with masses of the two small primaries m2 and m3 taken to be equal. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of radiation and oblateness parameters on the existence and location of equilibrium points and their linear stability. It is observed that under the perturbative effect of oblateness, collinear equilibrium points do not exist (numerically and of course analytically) whereas the positions of the noncollinear equilibrium points are affected by the radiation and oblateness parameters. The stability of each equilibrium points ( Li,i = 1,...,6) is examined and we found that points Li,i = 1,...,6 are unstable while L7 and L8 are stable.

Artículo de investigación

Sakho I

Description of a new model of the Solar System is given in this paper. Analogously to the planetary atomic model of Rutherford, we describe an Atomic Model of the Solar System (AMSS) in which the planets are coupled like electrons in atoms. The AMSS presented put into evidence the existence of a tenth celestial object (nicknamed here SENEG) that might be the centuries-long searched tenth planet or classified in the category of dwarf planets. Since the much controverted Prague (IAU0603 2006) statement, astronomers actively search beyond Neptune a probable ninth planet. The AMSS model gives in the viewpoint of mathematics, the criterion satisfied by a planet belonging to the Solar System. The AMSS indicates that, the stability of the Solar System is only compatible with a configuration containing ten planets and that SENEG orbits the Sun at the distance of 11,208,000,000 km. From the AMSS model, it is mathematically shown that both 2003 VB12 (Sedna) and 2003 UB313 (Xena) have not the status of planets and they may be classified in the category of dwarf planets. Discussion about how the AMSS model may play a prominent role in the implementation of the quantum theory of freedmons is also made.

Artículo de investigación

Cusack PTE

In this brief paper, I consider that the mysterious sound frequencies heard in the Western Pacific are not from belugas, but rather are the internally reflected waves from the Super force heard at the ocean bottom in the Marina Trench. These waves travel through the Ether which comprises the universe. They are intensified by the mass of the Earth. This could prove to be the first experimental sign of the Astrotheology theory of the Universe.

Artículo de investigación

Stabnikov PA and Babailov SP

A composite interaction potential for a broad range of distances was proposed. It is proposed to express the interaction force as F = Mm (γ × R-2 + δ × R-1), where γ is the gravitation constant, δ = 2.7 × 10-31 m2 × kg-1 × s-2 is an additional fundamental constant. This approach allows one to keep the description of planet rotation is star systems almost unchanged, and to explain the anomalies of the motion of stars and galaxies without attracting the notions of so-called dark matter or universal acceleration. This approach is naturally built into the general physical picture of the world in which the significance of fundamental interactions changes while the size of objects changes, from elementary particles to galaxies. This picture is based on the interdependence of fundamental interactions and the size of material objects. Thus, weak and strong coupling determine the structure and properties of elementary particles and atomic nuclei. The existence of atoms, molecules, liquids and solids is due to electromagnetic coupling. Gravitational interaction promoted the formation of star systems, while the additional interaction δ promoted the formation of galaxies. It was demonstrated by means of thermodynamics that the formation of stable orbital systems with attraction forces F~Rn is possible within the range -3 ≤ n ≤ -1.