Revista de investigación traslacional en oncología

Evaluation of Immune Complexomes and Possible Pathological Influences at Various Stages of Breast Cancer


Michael Chukwudi Ezeani*, Ujuamala Uloma Ezeani, Henry Chima Opkara, Rosemary Adamma Analike, Emeka Callistus Onyeka Izuchukwu, Bright Chukwuebuka Unaeze and Ngozichukwu Gertrude Uzoewulu

Staging of breast cancer is important in the reading of cancer progression and level of treatment required. Certain underlying factors may be determinant and consequent to prognostic values at various stages. These underlying factors are considered to include circulating immune complexes which has the capability to mediate molecular expression and could give insight into possible progressive remission developments at various stages of Breast cancer.

Methods: We recruited 50 female participants including 10 with benign tumour, 15 apparently healthy participants and 25 with malignant tumour and at stages: 2 (No.6); 3b (No.8); 3c (No.7) and 4 (No.4). Prospective observational analytical study was conducted to identify changes in certain inflammatory molecules, DNA oxidation and sex hormonal molecules in different stages, with respect to increased or normal level of circulating immune complexes. Serum samples were assayed for circulating immune complexes using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) immuno-precipitation and quantification. Isolated cell free DNA (cfDNA) (FitAmp blood kit (Epigentek, USA) was assayed for nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), while serum samples were assayed for Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), immunoglobulin G (IgG), 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxy Guanosine (8-OH2DG), estrogen and progesterone, using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Mean differences in expression of the molecules in health, tumour and malignancy, were recorded as point reference to determine the effect of immune complexes at various stages.

Result: The result recorded only stages 2, 3b 3c and 4. Serum levels of CIC were significantly increased in all the stages and benign tumour (P=0.000), under this influence, expression of NFkB, (P=0.006), TNF-α, (P=0.000), 8-OH2DG (P=0.010) were significantly increased, while expression of progesterone was significantly reduced (P=0.014). Specifically, significant increases in expression of the molecules are indicated as follows: CICs: benign tumour- p=0.017, stage 3b- P=0.012 and 3c-P=0.000; NFkB: 3c-P=0.030; TNF-α: benign tumour-P=0.040, stage 3b- P=0.000, 3c-P=0.000 and 4-P=0.019; 8OH2DG: stage 3b-0.045 only. However significant decrease in progesterone was found only in stage 3b compared to levels found in healthy subjects (P=0.048). The degree to which the expression of one molecule, influence another molecule was determined.

Conclusion: Serum levels of CICs increase in all stages of breast cancer and benign tumor. Presence of CIC could be a leading circumstance mediating inflammatory molecular expression at various stages of cancer. It was observed that, the degree of expression of one molecule could positively predict the expression of another, suffice it to say that there could be collaborating influence of CIC on DNA oxidative damage and inflammatory molecules at stages of breast cancer.

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